Governmental Project Management (GPM)
Governments create and maintain their GPISs. If in a particular country it becomes apparent that the public sector projects too often fail, a regulation requiring an increase in the efficiency of project management in public organizations may be issued. The first law of this type was probably the Icelandic law on construction projects (Althingi, Lög um skipan opinberra framkvæmda, No. 63/1970). In 1976 American OMB issued Circular A-109 on major systems acquisitions. Canadian Government issued in 2007 Policy on the Management of Projects. The Australian Government published in 2012 Capability Improvement Plan for governmental projects, program and portfolios. Lower-level documents may also be used to improve project management. The Governor of the State of North Dakota published in 2011 Executive Order on large scale IT projects. In 2015 the British Government made decision about merging Major Projects Agency and Infrastructure UK into the Infrastructure and Projects Authority. The Government of India in 2013 set up the Independent Evaluation Office to improve effectiveness of programs.
All activities relating to GPIS carried out by the government may be treated as management of this system. This level of project management will be called Governmental Project Management (GPM). GPM is made up of activities that shape, maintain and implement the functioning of GPIS in a way that assures maximum benefit from public sector projects for a given country.